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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF THE CYNEGETICUS, on WORK ON COURSING.
(Arrian on coursing: The Cynegeticus of the younger Xenophon)
By William Dansey ,1831


IWT Editor note - I included this article in the library because it contains one of the earliest mentions of "The Celtic Greyhound" and dates back to the 3rd/4th century. The translaster (William Dansey) comes from a family of Latin/Greek scholars. One of the problems of some 1800 translations are the errors of "interpretation" of Latin and Greek sources. We believe Dansey's translation of Arrian/Xenophon is one of the more trusted translations The book is several hundred pages in length, I have had to edit it down somewhat. I am anxious not to do damage to accuracy by my editing. For those interested in viewing the unedited original work they can download the full book here,

http://www.irishwolfhoundtimes.com. William Dansey ,1831 Celtic Greyhound


By William Dansey ,1831
The following version does not aim at pleasing the mere literary man. It was not undertaken with the ambitious expectation of being generally acceptable. It is addressed to the coursing public alone—to the amateurs of the leash; for whom the original was written, seventeen centuries ago, by their representative of old, a courser of Nicomedia in Asia Minor; and for whose amusement and instruction the same now assumes an English garb.

The Cynegeticus was originally written by Arrian, in imitation of Xenophon's Treatise de Venatione, to supply the lacunae of that work in the particular department of Coursing.

The manuscript seems to have been neglected in the Vatican library for several years after it had been first discovered, in consequence of its bearing the name of Xenophon: for the persons who accidentally met with it, not being aware of Arrian's assumption of that title, took no pains to examine it, under an impression that it was the edited Cynegeticus of the elder Xenophon, and not a new and unknown treatise on a different branch of the same subject, by an author of the same assumed name, a pseudo-Xenophon.

Of all the pugnacious dogs of the classic file, the most renowned were those bred on the continent of Epirus, and denominated, from one of its principal districts, Molossian: of which Aristotle records two varieties, the one for ordinary hunting, the other for guarding flocks, houses, and property. The fabled origin of the breed is consistent with its high repute in the kennels of antiquity. For, on the authority of Nicander, we are told by Julius Pollux, that the Epirote was descended from the brazen dog, which Vulcan wrought for Jupiter, and animated with all the functions of canine life— Of this Molossian prototype the fortunate proprietors were, successively, Europa, Minos, Procris, and Cephalus; and, somehow or other, as he passed from kennel to kennel, amidst heroines and heroes, or whilst in the temporary keeping of Diana, (who seemingly bestowed him on Procris,) he was metamorphosed into a wolfgreyhound, under the name and character of the Ovidian Lselaps. See Class III. Vertragus.

276 The Britannus sagax, "the hound sagacious on the tainted Pope's essay on Man.green," next claims our attention. Of the Britannus bellicosus we have already spoken under the first class. The earlier cynegetical writers are silent on the subject of British hounds: nor do they appear to have been known in Italy till towards the decline of the Roman empire; when, having been introduced into Celtic Gaul, their merits became gradually known in southern Europe. And here, in spite of the French encyclopedists, (the copyists of Messieurs Encyclopedic D'Yauville and Le Verrier de la Conterie,) who gratuitously assume su/ies lBasse's, "qu'en general les chiens Anglois n'ont pas autant de noblesse que Pi138 les beaux chiens Francois,"— and that where the breed is improved, as they allow it to be in some cases, the amelioration is attributable to Norman crosses,— we must, with our native poet, claim the palm for Britain;

In thee alone, fair land of liherty! Somerville.
Is hred the perfect hound, in scent and speed Chace, B.i.
As yet unrivall'd, while in other climes
Their virtue fails, a weak degenerate race!

By name, British hunting-dogs (as distinct from the pugnacious class) are mentioned by the poets of Carthage and Anazarbus alone; by the former, where singing the praises of different canine breeds, the merits of the blood of distant countries;

Nemesian. Sed non Spartanos tantiini, tantimve Molossos
Cyneg. vs. 12S. Pascendum catuloa: divisa Britannia mittit
Veloces,1 nostrisque orhis venatihus aptos;

—by the latter, in the conclusion of his first cynegetic, vs. 467, hereafter cited. Of Nemesian's " veloces," probably not of the sagacious class, I shall, in the sequel, speak. In the absence of any assigned habitat for the Petronius, may we not consider him indigenous of Britain ? 2 Our happy isle has ever been famous for excellent breeds of hunting-dogs, for skilful sportsmen, and horses both fleet and patient of the chase. All the Celtic nations indeed, and our ancestors among the rest, were passionately addicted to the diversions of the field, considering the prosecution of such laborious callings a kind of apprenticeship and initiation for war. Thence the superiority of the Celtic breeds of sporting-dogs, and more especially of the Britannus sagax and Britannus bellicosus. With the latter, perhaps, the former may have been sent to Italy by the resident Procurator Cynegii, as worthy of admission into Roman kennels; for at this early period I believe there were only these two native varieties of the canine race in Britain. In the field of battle, in public spectacles, and in the wolf and boar-chases, the bellicosus, the rival of the truculent Epirote, stood pre-eminent: and in the ordinary hunting of timid and fugacious quarry, the hound " naribus

1. It is my opinion that these celocea were greyhounds, — which having heen exported from Gaul, their native soil, into Britain, were thence again sent to Italy .— and therefore I have nothing to say ahout them here. The passage is not of easy application — some commentators interpreting it as having reference to one variety of hound, and some to another :—

2. Of what country were the Canes Petronii indigenous ' — Ylitius claims them, without proof, for Belgium—denies all knowledge of them to Italy, beyond mere report—unceremoniously diasallows the prelensions of Gaul—and, for reasons equally inadequate, those of Britain. But the latter, in my opinion, has as well-founded a claim to the breed as Belgium.

286 Nor must I omit the beautiful and minutely faithful portrait of the Greek poet of Anazarbus, though aware that it has been appropriated to a variety of the nare sagaces, and that Rittershusius does not allude to any supposed resemblance to the Celtic dog in his commentary on Oppian. Bearing in mind, however, that this erudite scholar had only the writings of Xenophon and Pollux, and the scanty lines of the Faliscian and African poets, to aid his attempt to give name and place to a doubtful animal; — had no authorities to consult, particularly dedicated to the pedibus celeres in opposition to the nare sagaces, to whose cause, and that of the bellicosi, the Greek Cynegetica were exclusively, and the Latin principally confined, (for the treatise of Arrian was at that period undiscovered in the Vatican,) — and therefore could not assimilate the Oppianic hound to the Celtic type;—I am not at all surprised that he has left this resemblance unnoticed. Subsequent commentators following in his footsteps, the Celtic dog has been as entirely disregarded on Oppjan's page, as if he had been never admitted on his muster-roll.

The advocate of the Celtic hound may allege, in support of his interpretation, that such ancient dogs as ran on scent were more or less long-eared, being so represented on the monuments of antiquity; —and may ask how the small ears of Oppian's dog, if interpreted of the sagacious class, are to be reconciled with the representations of Tempesta, Montfaucon, and others, and the down-hanging ears of modern Canes Venatici of the keen-nosed class? Again—as the Cilician was a perfect adept at versifying with the materials furnished by his predecessors, and certainly made the best use of their labours, is it not improbable that he should have altogether omitted the Celtic greyhound, so faithfully portrayed by the younger Xenophon, (with whose description that of the poet in no essential point differs,) and have mentioned two varieties of sagaces and one of bellicosi, the entire neglect of the Vertragus type?

Xenophon's finite has small ears, (unless with Vlitius we read Sto /uutpi,) and Arrian's Celt large, down-falling ears, as if broken—small and stiff ones heing deemed a hlemish in the greyhound. But in other respects the ears of the Oppianic hound closely resemhle Arrian's type, and also Nemesian's — hoth confessedly Celtic. See Arrian de Venat. c. v. and Nemesian. Cyneg. n. 112.

For a beautiful image of the Celtic greyhound the reader is referred to Pere JVIonifaucon, L'Antiquit£ expliquee. Tom. in. Liv. iv. pi. 176. A medallion from the arch of Constantino exhihits the Emperor Trajan with his huntsmen, accompanied by a type of this dog, the most elegant which antiquity has transmitted to us. It has heen copied on stone for the preceding work hy Messrs. Day and Haghe; who have added to our emhellishments Chrysis and Aura from an ancient gem—Laelaps from Tempesta—and some spirited outlines from the antique. But I have most pleasure in referring my readers to the genuine Celtic exemplars— the veloces catuli—of the Townley collection of the British Museum, faithfully lithogrsphed by the same artists. This heautiful group of greyhound puppies, in white marble, was found by Mr. Gavin Hamilton in the year 1774, at Monte Cagnolo, part of the villa of Antoninus Pius, near the ancient Lanuvium, heyond the " lucus et ara Dianae," of the Via Appia.

Greyhound puppies—a groupe in white marhle in the British Museum
from the ruins of Antoninus's Villa at Monte Cagnolo


Of an earlier date, however, than these most interesting groupes, is the medallion selected as the frontispiece of the present work. For although the triumphal arch, whence it it was originally copied, was not erected till about A. D. 300. that arch was a piece of architectural patch-work, made up of the spoils of earlier structures—its medallions and principal ornaments heing derived from one 200 years older, commemorative of Trajan's victories over the Dacians and Partisans, — amongst the former of whom, on the authority of Arrian, deer-coursing was an estahlished sport in the beginning of the second century. Ahout the latter period, or at the very close of the first century, the medallion of the frontispiece was probahly wrought; whereas the Monte Cagnolo groupes, if executed expressly for the decoration of Antoninus's villa, were half a century later.

A medallion from the arch of Constantino
http://www.irishwolfhoundtimes.com. William Dansey ,1831 Celtic Greyhound


The term greyhound has confounded English etymologists as much as that of Vertragus has puzzled Latin commentators. It is variously spelt by our old Book of English writers: as grehounde by Juliana Bemers, " a grehounde sholde he heeded lykeasnake"—greihounde by Chaucer, "greihoundes he hadde as swift as foul." Lord Berners writes "grayhounde;" Junius, "graihound;" Gesner, "grewhownd;" Harrington, "grewnd;" and the latter contraction is of frequent occurrence in Golding's translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses,

Booke I.

And even as when the greedy gvewnde doth course the sillie hare,
Amiddes the plaine and champion fielde without all covert hare.

295 Dr. Caius's derivation of the term, as spelt by R. Brunne, and the Sopewell Prioress, is fanciful enough :—" a gre quoque grehound apud nostros invenit nomen, quod praecipui grados inter canes sit, et prima e generositatis. Gre enim apud nostros gradum denotat." Whence also Hym thought that his grebyche lay hym hesyde." The gre-hound and grehound bitch being first in degree, or rank, among dogs; and no one under the dignity of a gentleman being allowed by the forest laws of Canute to keep such titled hounds. In support of the Doctor's notion, it may he stated that Gawin Douglas uses are for degree in his translation of the iEneid, and so also the prophet of Ercildoun, and the author of the metrical romance of Morte Arthur. In the complaynt of Bagsche by Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount, a satirical poem of the 'Lion King,' on court favouritism, we have a farther example peculiarly apposite ;—for the hounds, specified hy name as " doggis of the hyest gre," were probahly highland deer greyhounds. Whimsical therefore as Caius's tracing of the term may he, we cannot view it as utterly untenable.

By Skinner, 'greyhound' is derived from the Anglo-Saxon grighund; and he farther remarks " Minsevus dictum putat quasi Gracus canis, quia sc. Graeci omnium primi hoc genus canum ad venatum adhihehant, quod facile crediderim si authorem laudaaset." I know of no authority for so hold an assertion, except the doubtful tales of Hector Boethius, Fordun, and Holinshed, and therefore discredit the fact. Dr. Hickes says: "Grey canis, extat in nostro grr yhund. Comp. ex grey et hunt a, venator." q. d. a hunting dog. And Junius notes "quod Islandis grey est canis." Skinner, on the contrary, hints that the dog may he a badger-hunter, "a grey taxus et hund canis, q. d. taxi insectator." Thus Hickes and Junius hestow on him double dogship, and Skinner degrades him to a badger-hound. Well may we exclaim with Brodaeus, " Vide quo procedat etymologiarum licentia!—6 joculares ineptias!"

Equestrian Courser: Ancient gem of Maffei. Gemme Antiche. T. iv.


The terms grewhound, grewnd, graihound, greyhound, Cants Gracus, and Graius, all indicate a supposed connexion with Greece. Grew is often used for Greek hy Douglas and Lyndsay—(see the Bishop's Preface to his Virgil, and the Knight's apology for " The Maternal Language.") Still I cannot helieve the genuine Celtic hound to have been known to ancient Greece. I would, therefore, rather seek the origin of the English name in the predominant colour of the dog;—Grey, gray, grai,

296 In the Description of Ireland Page 8 -"The Greihounde of King Cranthlynth's dayes," says Holinshed, " was not fetched sofar as out of Grecia, but rather bed in Scotland."

From Hector Boethius it is clear that the Canes Scotici (qu. Canes Celtici) were superior to the native dogs of the isle: "Ut Picti suos canes Scoticis, pulchritudine, velocitate, lahoris patientia, simul atque audacia longe inferiores animadvertissent: hujusmodi generis canum cupidi, ut penes se essent, e quihus nascerentur, quosdam utriusque sexus a Scotis nohilihus dono accepere: alios finite venatu, rege aheunte in Atholiam, ii custodihus clam ahstraxere, et inter eos venaticum quendam candore nivali, eximia pernicitate, forma eleganti, audentiaque supra communem canum facultatem, quem Crathlintus hahuit in deliciis, insignem," &c. See also Fordun. Scotichron. L. n, c. Xlii. (Reguante Diocletiauo).

F. Junii Etymolog. Anglican. Etymolog. Anglican.

Venatio Nnvantiqua.

The early history of the greyhound is confounded with the Epirote, as if they had a common lineage—a mistake which has arisen from their being considered equally of Grecian origin—whereas the greyhound has no connexion with ancient Greece. Fable, however, assigns them a common descent from the Laelaps of Boeotia, —from whom also sprung other dogs of classic fame. The history of this celebrated hound, and the lineage and geographical distribution of his descendants, are particularized in the Cynegeticon of Bargaeus

A curious remnant of antiquity in the British Museum, lately committed to the press, (for private distrihution, to the extent of one hundred copies,) by that liberal and enlightened promoter of classical and Brilish antiquarian research, both with his pen and purse, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart., aided in the editorial department hy Mr. William Henry Black ;—to whom also the present writer is indehted for an accurate transcript of the Master of Game, copied and collated in the same national repository.

It remins for me to mention the distinctions which have been made by nasturalists in the greyhound type of our own islands and to endeavour to trace its connection with Gallia Celtica. The modern sub-varieties of our systematic writers on natural history are named from the countries in which the respective sorts most abound, English, Scotch, and Irish greyhounds. Spelman, whose authority is entitled to weight, in his remarks " De Canibus Veterum," speaking of the " Leporarius levipes, qui ex visu praedam appetit arripit11' que, a greyhound, Ovidio Canis Gallicus," subjoins, "sed proprie magls Bvitannicus;" as if he deemed him of British origin,1 a native of our isle, like the inhabitants of the interior mentioned by De hello Ca:sar, "quos natos in insula ipsa, memoria proditum dicunt;"—but L. iv. 12. ne cites no testimony in support of his opinion. I do not believe either of the three sub-varieties of the dog in question indigenous of Great Britain; but rather that all our insular sorts originally sprang from the Celtic Vertragus:—the probability of which is supported Svmmachi by the history of the distribution of the Celts themselves, and the name under which the dogs were sent by Flavian to his brother Symmachus at Rome. The Scots, a Celtic tribe, previously inhabiting some part of Western Europe, emigrated into Ireland during the third century, and gave to that isle, pro tempore, the name of Scotland. Thence they spread over the Western islands, and took possession of the neighbouring district of Argyle, the land of the Gael or Gaul—giving eventually their name to the Northern part of Britain generally. May we not suppose the Irish and Scotch greyhounds to have been primeval I y derived from the same Celtic stock, accompanying these emigrants of Celtic Europe to Ireland, and thence to Scotland; in one or other of which territories they received the name of Canes Scotici, from the Scotish emigrants of Celtica, who accompanied them ? 1 and may not the English greyhound, improved in speed by careful management and judicious breeding, as his master increased in civilization and became more reclaimed, be derived, through such intermediate links, from the same parent source? The coarser varieties of the North, and of the sister Isle, are rarely seen in South Britain; and though at first closely connected with the Celt, and amongst his earliest descendants, are now considered farther removed from the genuine type of Celtica, the oviprpayot Kvihv of the Greek manual, in consequence of commixture with the canes bellicosi and sagaces.

The strongest evidence we possess of the greyhound's existence in Britain, in the reigns of Carus, his sons, and Diocletian, is afforded by the Cynegeticon of the African poet. For although I deny that this hound can be entitled to the local epithet Britannicus, bestowed on him by Spelman, to the superseding his usual titles, I readily grant, at the same time, that the exported velocrs of Britain, of the Nemesian. Cy- Cynegeticon alluded to, were greyhounds. Nemesian must be conneget. vs. 124. 8M|ere| a1most entirely the poet of the pedibui cekrts ;—at least, in that portion of his hunting-poem which has survived the ravages of time. But the usual terms by which the greyhound is designated in Ovid, Gratius, Martial, and Arrian, are no where found in the poet of Carthage; in place of which invariably occur the terms catuli veloces. That by these terms the latter author intends hounds of the Celtic type, I have, on a careful re-perusal of his work, not the least doubt; though, when writing the note to the Preface, p. 11, I was inclined to view the veloces, particularly specified by Nemesian as of British export, as nimble harriers, rather than genuine greyhounds; and did not in consequence adduce the passage alluded to, when there endeavouring to fix the period of the latter's introduction into Britain. Indeed, J. Ylitius, himself sceptical at first as to the nature of these swift-footed hounds, (see his remarks on Nemesian vs. 124.,) comes round to my conclusion in the progress of his annotations, (see his notes on vs. 233.). Nearly the whole of Nemesian's instructions have reference to canes cursores, beginning with their exportation from our own island—where, doubtless, they had been previously imported from Gaul—

(Fleming's British Animals, p. 12). The modern Scotch greyhound differs from the Irish in many respects.1 The former is rough and wiry, has a bearded snout, and ears half-pricked; the latter has short smooth hair and pendent ears; the Scotch is sharp, swift, and sagacious; the Irish dull-looking, harmless, indolent. The former is still common in North Britain, the latter is become exceedingly rare everywhere. From Mr. Lambert's description of a modern specimen, the Irish wolf-greyhound seems to have degenerated much in size.

Gesner has introduced into his Appendix a representation of the " Canis Scoticus Venaticus, quem Scoti vocant arte grewhownd, id est canem Gnecom:" and calls it " genus venaticum cum celerrimum turn audacissimum: nec modd in feras, sed in hostes etiam latronesque prasertim si dominum ductoremve injuria affici cernat, aut in eos concitetur." See " the Complaynt of Bagtcht, the Kingis auld hound," hy Lyndsay, for a quaint description of some of the qualities of the highland breed. Poor Gellert, too, the luckless wolf-hound of the precipitate Llewellyn, will furnish an early example of the mountain sort. Nor should the Ossianic Maida—by Landseer, be overlooked, as a splendid type of the race on canvas; though not quite Celtic in his blood.

A breed of Sagaci-celeres is at present preserved in Scotland, between the English greyhound and Leicestershire fox-hound: the first cross of which is represented to he remarkahly handsome, fleet, and courageous. This race is employed for the deerchase in the forest of Alhol and elsewhere.

Celtic greyhound: Silver coin of Cythnus.
Gollzii N. G. Ins. T. xvm


The hound described in the Linnean Society's Transactions is stated to have heen only 61 inches in length—a size surpassed hy an example of the Canis Grains of the purest blood and greatest speed, (" facilis cui plurima palma,") 62 inches long, now in my possession—Iti yip fioi fy, as Arrian says of his much-loved Horm. But it is prohahle that the heautifully-majestic animal, which assisted in extirpating the wolf from the sylvan fastnesses of our islands, was heretofore of far greater size than the writer's

If the reader he interested in the arcana of wolf-catching, he will find illustrations, and anecdotes thereof, in Oppian. Cyneg. iv. vs. 212.—in the Venationes Ferarum of Strada and Galle (pi. 49.)—Lupos Venandi Ratio of J. A. Lonicer—La Chasse du Loup of Jean de Clamorgan—fdagBlrr of ffiauU, c. Vii. fo. 40.—Turhervile's Art of Venerie, p. 208.—Venation is Lupina e Leges of Savary, &c. The latter author turns out his whole kennel and armoury for the annihilation of this " fera hellua "

Derived from the Irish greyhound, and not very far removed from the original stock, was the gazehound of past days. By Dr. Caius, he is supposed to he faithfully portrayed in the following extract: "Quod visu lacessit, nare nihil agit, sed oculo: oculo vulpem leporemque perseiutor, oculo seligit medio de grege feram, et eam non nisi hene saginatam et opimam: oculo insequitur: oculo perditam requirit: oculo, si quando in gregem redeat, secernit, caeteris relictis omnihus, secretamque cursu denud fatigat ad mortem. Agasirum nostri ahs re quod intento sit in feram oculo, vocant," etc. To this portrait I can assimilate no dog at present known in this country, (though, it is probable, such might he produced hetween the Irish greyhound and hlood-hound,) nor do the classic ages afford any counterpart to it.

For Dacier's explanation of the 'i catuli fideles" of Horace—" sen visa est catulis '' cerva fidelihus"—aa des chiens qui auivent hien la hite, qui ne prennent jamais le change, so readily acceded to by the Drlphin annotator, as portraying the English gazehound, is far too fanciful to establish a race of these "chasseurs a vue" in ancient Italy. Horace merely gives sagacity and steadiness to deer-hounds, or possibly the negative quality of not opening in pursuit of their game. To this definition Ray subjoins, " nonnullis Scoticus," as if he considered the Scotch greyhound of the same type—that there was, in short, only one variety—the English and Scotch heing identical. The additional words would of course include the supplementary hound of Gesner's Appendix, and probahly were added with that intent.

Arrian's work was unknown to the great German naturalist—not having heen discovered in the Vatican lihrary, when he compiled his celebrated Historia Animalium, nor indeed till a century later. That Ray, too, was unacquainted with the Greek Manual, seems equally clear. Thence the strong points of resemblance in the ancient and modern descriptions of a dog, hypothetically the same, impart the more interest, and obtain the more credence, from the impossibility of a collusive adaptation of the one to the other, and from both portraits corresponding with the images of the Celtic hound, which have come down to us on ancient monuments, the Arch of Constantine, gems, numismata, etc etc.

Funebalis Pomva. In Edihus Barherinis.
Admiranda Romanarum Antiquitatum ac Veteris Sculpturc
e Vesligia, c. d Petro Sancti
Bartolo. Tah. 70 307


Description of "The Greihounde of King Cranthlynth's dayes," says Holinshed, " was not Irelande, fetched so far as out of Grecia, but rather bred in Scotland."

From Hector Boethius it is clear that the Canes Scotici (qu. Canes Celtici) were superior to the native dogs of the isle: "Ut Picti suos canes Scoticis, pulchritudine, velocitate, lahoris patientia, simul atque audacia longe inferiores animadvertissent: hujusmodi generis canum cupidi, ut penes se essent, e quihus nascerentur, quosdam utriusque sexus a Scotis nohilihus dono accepere: alios finite venatu, rege aheunte in Atholiam, ii custodihus clam ahstraxere, et inter eos venaticum quendam candore nivali, eximia pernicitate, forma eleganti, audentiaque supra communem canum facultatem, quem Crathlintus hahuit in deliciis, insignem," &c. See also Fordun. Scotichron. L. n, c. Xlii. (Reguante Diocletiauo).

The varieties of the grey colour, of which Werner's nomenclature of colours gives us hetween twenty and thirty shades suited to our purpose, predominate in the greyhound tribe, and more especially the bluish-grey and blackish-grey, (almost peculiar to this race and the great Danish dog of Buffon,) and all the dingy tints which under the epithet dun are found to prevail. Indeed it has heen suggested that the line of Gratius, " Et pictam maculA Vertraham delige faud," may allude to the doubtful tint of colour, denominated grey, (compounded of two colours variously commixed in the Vertraha).—" Videntur Angli canes hos grayhounds vocare," says Vlitius, 'i id est suhfuscos, vel nigro et alho mixtos quod nos graw dicimus."

The strongest evidence we possess of the greyhound's existence in Britain, in the reigns of Carus, his sons, and Diocletian, is afforded by the Cynegeticon of the African poet. For although I deny that this hound can be entitled to the local epithet Britannicus, bestowed on him by Spelman, to the superseding his usual titles, I readily grant, at the same time, that the exported velocrs of Britain, of the Nemesian. Cy- Cynegeticon alluded to, were greyhounds. Nemesian must be conneget. vs. 124. 8 M|ere | almost entirely the poet of the pedibui cekrts ;—at least, in that portion of his hunting-poem which has survived the ravages of time. But the usual terms by which the greyhound is designated in Ovid, Gratius, Martial, and Arrian, are no where found in the poet of Carthage; in place of which invariably occur the terms catuli veloces. That by these terms the latter author intends hounds of the Celtic type, I have, on a careful re-perusal of his work, not the least doubt; though, when writing the note to the Preface, p. 11, I was inclined to view the veloces, particularly specified by Nemesian as of British export, as nimble harriers, rather than genuine greyhounds; and did not in consequence adduce the passage alluded to, when there endeavouring to fix the period of the latter's introduction into Britain. Indeed, J. Ylitius, himself sceptical at first as to the nature of these swift-footed hounds, (see his remarks on Nemesian vs. 124.,) comes round to my conclusion in the progress of his annotations, (see his notes on vs. 233.). Nearly the whole of Nemesian's instructions have reference to canes cursores, beginning with their exportation from our own island—where, doubtless, they had been previously imported from Gaul—

From the view, then, here taken of the identity of these luces catuli of Nemesian with the Verlragi of Arriau, we may conclude that greyhounds had been exported from the British Isles to some more southern state, Rome or Carthage, when the native poet of the latter place sung their praises in his Cynegeticon. And from the same source, a supply of these rare and valuable dogs was kept up at Home, in the reign of Theodosius, by the instrumentality of Flavian. Inmates, therefore, of Celto-Britannic kennels, they must have been, on the twofold evidence of Nemesian and Symmacbus, at this early period of our dark and semi-fabulous annals. Whether the dogs transported from these isles, as rarities, by Flavian, '' solennium rerum largus, et novarum repertor," to grace with their "incredible force and boldnesse," the Quxstorate of his brother Symmachus at Rome, " quos praelusionis die ita Roma mirata est ut ferreis caveis putaret advectos," are to be considered Irish or Scotch, according to modern distinctions, is quite unimportant; for probably at the period of the " oblatio" both were included under the same name. Indeed, it is well known, the inhabitant of Ireland bore the name of Scotus in the age of Claudian, who wrote, as well as Symmachus, in the reigns of Theodosius and Honorius,

That these Canes Scotici were our Canes bellicosi seems highly improbable; for the latter had been known in Rome for several centuries, and could not have been deemed rarities in the days of Symmachus. I am inclined, then, to view them as high-bred Celtic bounds, ctre Too barrios ytvovs, fvrt Tov rpixov, naturalized in these isles, and thence again exported to Rome by Flavian. From the earliest date of their existence, there have ever been two varieties of fleet Gallic hounds. As at this time we have greyhounds with rough, and others with smooth hair, so in the days of Arrian were they distinguished in the same way. In the sixth chapter of his Cynegeticus, on the colour of hounds,1 and its little importance to their merits, he observes that the hair, whether the dog be of the rough or smooth sort, should be fine, close, and soft:—by which I understand that, though the dog be what is termed wire-haired, the hair must not be coarse of texture, nor loose and shaggy. And from these sources we may derive the existing races of England, Scotland, and Ireland, without any necessary commixture with other blood, to account for the wirehaired skin. But the extraordinary sagacity of nose, superinduced on swiftness of foot, in certain varieties of modern Celtic hounds with rough coats, favours the notion of Buffon and others, that a cross has taken place with some alien, sagacious breed, at a remote period. Be this, however, as it may, we will consider the coarsehaired and more powerful varieties of Arrian's Celt, the representatives of the wolf-hounds of Ireland and Scotland ; 4 and the fabulous Lselaps, " the goodly grewnd" of Golding, presented by Dian to °I"d" ^j8TM' Procris,

The modern Scotch greyhound differs from the Irish in many respects.1 The former is rough and wiry, has a bearded snout, and ears half-pricked; the latter has short smooth hair and pendent ears; the Scotch is sharp, swift, and sagacious; the Irish dull-looking, harmless, indolent. The former is still common in North Britain, the latter is become exceedingly rare everywhere. From Mr. Lambert's description of a modern specimen, the Irish wolf-greyhound seems to have degenerated much in size.2

Gesner has introduced into his Appendix a representation of the " Canis Scoticus Venaticus, quem Scoti vocant arte grewhownd, id est canem Gnecom:" and calls it " genus venaticum cum celerrimum turn audacissimum: nec modd in feras, sed in hostes etiam latronesque prasertim si dominum ductoremve injuria affici cernat, aut in eos concitetur." See " the Complaynt of Bagtcht, the Kingis auld hound," by Lyndsay, for a quaint description of some of the qualities of the highland breed. Poor Gellert, too, the luckless wolf-hound of the precipitate Llewellyn, will furnish an early example of the mountain sort. Nor should the Ossianic Maida— xa\bs ftsv is pas iarlv—hy Landseer, he overlooked, as a splendid type of the race on canvas; though not quire Celtic in his blood.

A breed of Sagaci-celeres is at present preserved in Scotland, hetween the English greyhound and Leicestershire fox- hound: the first cross of which is represented to he remarkahly handsome, fleet, and courageous. This race is employed for the deerchase in the forest of Alhol and elsewhere.

The hound descrihed in the Linnean Society's Transactions is stated to have heen only 61 inches in length—a size surpassed hy an example of the Canis Grains of the purest blood and greatest speed, (" facilis cui plurima palma,") 62 inches long, now in my possession—Iti yip fioi fy, as Arrian says of his much-loved Horm£, oK&ts ravra typatpov. But it is probable that the heautifully-majestic animal, which assisted in extirpating the wolf from the sylvan fastnesses of our islands, was heretofore of far greater size than the writer's ipiKiv xiaiv rp a\ri6sla ytintauis—of whom he De Venations might farther say in the words of Ovid, ci xxxi1

The genuine Celtic greyhound, such as he is represented on the Arch of Constantine, is the " Canis venaticus Graius seu Graecus"

Indeed Mr. Ray's definition of the Canis Graius Hihtrnicut makes him of the greatest size of the whole canine race; 'i Canis omnium quos hactenus vidimus muximus, Molossum ipsum magnitudine superans—quod ad formam corporis et mores attinet, cani Graeco vulgari per omnia similis. Horum usus est ad lupos capiendos."

1. To this definition Ray subjoins, " nonnullis Scoticus," as if he considered the Scotch greyhound of the same type— that there was, in short, only one variety—the English and Scotch heing identical. The additional words would of course include the supplementary hound of Gesner's Appendix, and probably were added with that intent.

Arrian's work was unknown to the great German naturalist—not having heen discovered in the Vatican lihrary, when he compiled his celehrated Historia Animalium, nor indeed till a century later. That Ray, too, was unacquainted with the Greek Manual, seems equally clear. Thence the strong points of resemhlance in the ancient and modern descriptions of a dog, hypothetically the same, impart the more interest, and ohtain the more credence, from the impossihility of a collusive adaptation of the one to the other, and from both portraits corresponding with the images of the Celtic hound, which have come down to us on ancient monuments, the Arch of Constantine, gems, numismata, &c. &c.

2. See Arrian. de Venatione, c. xvm. & Ki^i, slrye & BiWa, (caAtSs S 'Opftfi. These we may suppose to have heen some of the names of the favourite archetypes of the Celtic kennel; hut of the particular scene of their exertions we have no evidence to adduce. Born at Nicomedia, and occupied for the most part with civil and military engagements in the East, at a distance from Celtics, properly so called, (within the houndaries of the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Rhine, and the Ocean,) we know not when or where Arrian hecame acquainted with the Vertragus. Was the hound existing in Asia Minor in the second century, seeing that he is noticed at a later period hy the Greek poet of Cilicia, and the Platonic philosopher of Paphlagonia? The Celts themselves arc found there, as colonists, at an early date— even in the very district of which Nicomedia was the metropolis. Stephanus of Cisalpine or Transalpine Gaul, or wherever the father of the leash slipped the " proavorum atavi" of the courser's hound,1 can admit, I think, of no doubt. Indeed, the field- instructions of the Cynegeticus refer almost exclusively to hare-coursing: nor does it appear that the author himself, sensible, as he confessedly was, of the peculiar physical adaptation of the greyhound to the hare-course, was ever guilty of misapplying the dog to inappropriate quarry. The red-deer, however, is noticed by him, in his 23rd chapter, as a chase of the Vertragus, fraught with imminent danger, and needing highmettled hounds.2 And, subsequently, the same animal is pursued with Scythian and Illyrian galloways on the open plains of Moesia, Dacia, Scythia, and Illyria:3—and, in the following chapter, we De Venat. find the like diversions practised in Africa with barbs

Byzantium mentions the Tolistohoii—tbvos raaotue intplav lutoikriogma v in rrjs ktato-yaAarfar is bibuvlav. (See also Straho Geogr. L. iv.) And other colonics are recorded hy Straho among the Thracians and Illyrians, kiltoiis robs ivafistuyfiivovs rois Tc 0pa£l xal to?r 'IAAvpioIs—the descendants of whom are perhaps the deercoursers of Arrian's 23rd chapter, whom I have there called Celto-Scytiiians: note 4. suh fine.

1. Although it is clear, almost to demonstration, that the greyhound was utterly unknown to ancient Greece in the days of the elder Xenophon, I readily allow that Greece may have heen Arrian's coursing-field, with the hound of Celtica, at a later period—an opinion supported hy Janus V'litius;—for into the south of Europe the dog had heen introduced as a prodigy of speed—" ocyor affectu mentis pinnaque"—prohahly direct from the country of which he was indigenous, viz. Transalpine Gaul, rip KfAtunjr Va\eerlas of Stephanus, (the Gallia Celtica of my annotations, without reference to Caesar's more limited appropriation of the term Celtica,) ahout the commencement of the Christian a-ra.

2. Tii Kvvos Tai ytvvalas,—possihly the coarser and fiercer varieties of the Celtic hound—fur Arrian seems to distinguish these noble-spirited dogs who, he says, may he destroyed by a stag.

S. The Celtae with their colonies overran almost all Europe. We trace them from the pillars of Hercules to the extreme wilds of Scythia; the colonists of the latter territory alone heing, correctly speaking, Celto-Scythae;—but in consequence of the ignorance of the ancient Greek geographers as to the exact limits of either Celtica or Scythia, (as already remarked in my annotations on the second chapter of the Cynegeticus,) the term Celto-Scythians has heen indefinitely applied to all the inhahitants of mid-Europe, from Celtica to Scythia.

4. It was Xenophon's want of acquaintance with these African harhs, along with the Scythian galloways, and Celtic greyhounds, which led to the omission of them all, in his Cynegeticus: and to the lacunae, thereby occasioned, in the older hunting.





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